By Norman John Greville Pounds
This booklet, like its better half quantity, An ancient Geography of Europe 450 BC-AD 1330, seeks to check the complicated of ordinary and man-made beneficial properties that experience inspired the process heritage and feature been stimulated via it. It follows the overall development of the sooner quantity and spans the interval from the early 16th century to the eve of the economic Revolution in continental Europe, nearly 1500 to 1840. It first provides an image of the geography of Europe - political, social and monetary - within the early 16th century, and it ends with an analogous photograph of continental Europe within the early 19th. The intervening interval of approximately 3 centuries is just too brief to be offered in a chain of cross-sections. in its place, among those horizontal images a chain of vertical reports has been inserted. those hint the advance of the most points of eu geography in this interval. There are chapters on inhabitants, city improvement, agriculture, production and alternate and shipping. As within the previous quantity, no try out has been made to incorporate both the British Isles or Russia, and those are spoke of merely by the way.
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Extra info for An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840
The scythe began to replace the sickle. It allowed the harvester to cut close to the ground, to make the most of the hay harvest, and, when he wished, to obtain a long wheat straw for thatching. The harrows shown 37 Europe in the early sixteenth century in sixteenth-century paintings and drawings were massive wooden frames fitted with large iron spikes. One cannot be sure how widely such improved tools were used. 111 In eastern Europe also, where labour was abundant and the seigneur's control over it increasing, there was little inducement to improve its efficiency by equipping it with better tools.
In reality, however, it presented a picture of even greater disunity than Italy. Territorial states and imperial cities, each of them independent and sovereign in all but name, reached a total of some three hundred. A few, like Bavaria, Brandenburg and Electoral Saxony, were extensive and powerful enough to demand a price for their friendship. Most were too small to play any independent role, and some cities could survive only by forming urban leagues. An attempt to introduce some order and stability into this changing scene by organising the states into a number of Kreise had failed, and now, in the third decade of the century, a new factor of discord was introduced, the Protestant Reformation.
85 Little attempt had been made during the Middle Ages to portray towns pictorially. They had sometimes formed part of the background of Italian paintings, but were usually highly stylised. By the early sixteenth century it had become common to draw and engrave a faithful representation of a particular town. Diirer's Nuremberg, Leonardo da Vinci's Imola, Bufalini's Rome, Truschet and Hoyau's Paris, and some of the illustrations in Schedel's Liber chronicarum and Sebastian Miinster's Cosmographia have pretensions to accuracy in their portrayal of both the plans and buildings of towns.
An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500-1840 by Norman John Greville Pounds