By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This guide covers the refrigeration apparatus and platforms for functions except human convenience. This publication contains details on cooling, freezing, and storing foodstuff; business purposes of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the practising engineer, this quantity is usually beneficial for someone interested by cooling and garage of foodstuff items. This variation comprises new chapters: Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration platforms and Terminology of Refrigeration. additionally new for this quantity are bankruptcy order and groupings which were revised for extra logical circulate and use.
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Additional info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition)
Assumes 3:1 recirculation rate) Vapor pipe sizes, in. 7 1 ½ in. 2 ½ in. 45 1 in. 4 in. Fig. 9 liquid and allowing the dry gas to exit to the compressors. The high gas density of CO2 means that liquid takes up a greater proportion of the wet suction volume than with ammonia, so there is a significant advantage in reducing the circulating rate. Typically 2:1 can be used for a cold store, whereas 4:1 would be preferred in this application for ammonia. Design of a recirculator vessel must consider liquid flow rates.
4 Fig. 2 2010 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration CO2 Heat Pump for Ambient Heat to Hot Water Fig. 3 R-717/CO2 Cascade System with CO2 Hot-Gas Defrosting Fig. 4 CO2 Heat Pump for Ambient Heat to Hot Water cases and controlled via electronic expansion valve. The mediumtemperature display cases are supplied liquid from the same circuit or from a dedicated pump system (Figures 5 and 6). Cascade systems in supermarkets have been designed to operate multitemperature display cases and provide heat recovery to generate hot water or space heating (Figure 7).
High-pressure screw compressors are also in development for industrial applications, in both single- and two-stage internally compound versions. LUBRICANTS There are several very suitable oils for use with CO2. Some oils are fully miscible with the refrigerant and some are nonmiscible. Each application requires a lubricant that meets specific temperature and miscibility characteristics. Lubricants include mineral oils, alkyl benzene, polyalphaolefin (PAO), polyol ester (POE), and polyalkyl glycol (PAG).
2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition) by American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers